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Prey species include anchovies (Engraulidae), sardines and pilchards (Clupeidae), and mullets (Mugilidae).
About 30 species within the arctic regions belonging to the families Petromyzontidae, Acipenseridae, Anguillidae, Clupeidae, Osmeridae, Salmonidae, and Gasterosteidae exhibit diadromous behavior (i.e., spend part of their lives in the marine environment and migrate to freshwater to spawn, or the converse).
Variation in abundance of Norwegian spring-spawning herring (Clupea harengus, Clupeidae) throughout the 20th century and the influence of climatic fluctuations.
There are many species of Clupeidae, with varying sizes and tastes, from the Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus, to the pilchard much loved in England, and often served in tomato sauce, to the tiny sprat, best smoked and eaten bones and all.
Both are members of the complex herring family Clupeidae, which includes more than 300 different species, including anchovies, shad, and herring.