from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition
- n. The bundle of fibrils that constitutes the central core of a cilium or flagellum.
- n. The axial thread of a chromosome.
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License
- n. A bundle of nine microtubules forming the internal scaffolding of a cilium, with two extra central microtubules connecting the others if the cilium is motile
from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
- n. One of the threads or strands in the central portion of the contractile stalk of Vorticellidæ.
… Thus, the 9+2 axoneme, which arose very early in eukaryotic evolution, appears to be constructed around a core set of proteins that are conserved in organisms possessing flagella and cilia Berriman, M., et al.
Berriman and coworkers write of trypanosomes: The proteins of the flagellar axoneme appeared to be extremely well conserved.
Essentially, a multiprotein system known as intraflagellar transport, or IFT, attaches to the cilium axonome (the 9+2 structure made of microtubules, which are made of tubulin), grabs the necessary protein subunits (like tubulin) from inside the cell, and “walks” them along the axoneme of the cilium out to the tip, where the subunits are deposited.
Thus, the 9+2 axoneme, which arose very early in eukaryotic evolution, appears to be constructed around a core set of proteins that are conserved in organisms possessing flagella and cilia Berriman, M., et al.
Consistent with a specific function of Dync1h1 within the outer segment, immunolocalization showed that this protein and other subunits of Dynein1 and Dynactin localized to the ciliary axoneme of the outer segment, in addition to their predicted inner segment localization.
The inside of the cilium contain precisely arranged microtubles, the axoneme.
(A) Confluent RPE1 cells were serum-starved for 24 hours, then fixed and stained for acetylated-tubulin (AT), which is highly enriched in primary cilia (axoneme) and for endogenous βarr2 using rARR antibody.
Whereas the basal body shares many properties with classical centrosomes, made of two centrioles and of a pericentriolar matrix, the axoneme represents a unique domain, characterized by the exclusion of many proteins and the enrichment of specific soluble, cytoplasmic, as well as membrane-associated components
Head length, axoneme length, and total length had high within-male repeatability across multiple spawnings.
, 14-3-3 proteins were not detected on the axoneme of PCs in RPE1 or MEFs.