Definitions
from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 5th Edition.
 noun Any of a class of particles having a spin that is half an odd integer and obeying the exclusion principle, by which no more than one identical particle may occupy the same quantum state. The fermions include the baryons, quarks, and leptons.
from the GNU version of the Collaborative International Dictionary of English.
 noun any particle that obeys FermiDirac statistcs and is subject to the Pauli exclusion principle.
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/ShareAlike License.
 noun A
particle with totally antisymmetric compositequantum states, which means it must obey the Pauli exclusion principle and FermiDirac statistics. They have halfintegerspin . Among them are many elementary particles, most derived fromquarks . Compareboson .
from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.
 noun any particle that obeys FermiDirac statistics and is subject to the Pauli exclusion principle
Etymologies
from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/ShareAlike License
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Examples

At low energies the Higgs gets a vacuum expectation value, and acts like a mass term, converting the lefthanded fermion into a righthanded fermion, which is what you want.
Dark Matter and Fifth Forces Sean 2008

The paper laid the basis for describing one of the two categories of the elementary particles that make up an atom  one was boson, and the other came to be known as fermion, after the Italian physicist Enrico Fermi.
IBN Top Headlines 2008

Assuming that this is no error, then the term "fermion" is ambiguous between elementary particle and composite particle.
Walter Kohn and DensityFunctional Theory Horace Jeffery Hodges 2005

The phase here is between a heavy fermion and light fermions in an antiferromagnetic state.

The existence of the superpartner to the Higgs and the fermion field at about the same mass scale results in the cancellation of these divergences.

So a Higgs field that couples to the fermion field f and its conjugate fbar according to an interaction term in the Lagrangian ~ fbarHf, will carry the Higgs divergence as well.

It think these internal fermion degrees of freedom behave as Landau electrons around a quantum critical point.
Einstein Still Rules, Says Fermi Telescope Team  Universe Today 2009

Also, one assumes the duality accounts for the discrete spectrum of possible fermion rest masses (perhaps corresponding to a discrete spectrum of possible closed black hole assemblies?)
Science and Unobservable Things Sean 2008

The mass scale characterizing each KaluzaKlein tower can be chosen independently for each species of scalar, fermion, or gauge boson.
Aether Compactification Sean 2008

In that language there is no fermion propagator and no Higgs insertion  the effect of the Higgs has been summed into our definition of the massive fermion.
Dark Matter and Fifth Forces Sean 2008
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