from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition
- adj. Of or relating to longitude or length: a longitudinal reckoning by the navigator; made longitudinal measurements of the hull.
- adj. Concerned with the development of persons or groups over time: a longitudinal study of twins.
- adj. Placed or running lengthwise: longitudinal stripes.
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License
- adj. Relating to length, or to longitude.
- adj. Running in the direction of the long axis of a body.
- adj. Forward and/or backward, relative to some defined direction.
- adj. Sampling data over time rather than merely once.
- n. Any longitudinal piece, as in shipbuilding etc.
from the GNU version of the Collaborative International Dictionary of English
- adj. Of or pertaining to longitude or length.
- adj. Extending in length; in the direction of the length; running lengthwise, as distinguished from
- n. A railway sleeper lying parallel with the rail.
from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
- Of or pertaining to longitude or length; relating to or consisting in length: as, longitudinal distance.
- In the direction of the length; running lengthwise, as distinguished from transverse or across: as, the longitudinal diameter of a body.
- In botany, in the direction of growth.
- In zoology, extended in the long axis of the body, as any articulate animal; articulated.
- n. In iron ship-building, one of the fore-and-aft members in the framing of a cellular double bottom, consisting of a plate, an inner angle-bar by which it is connected to the inner bottom, and an outer angle-bar by which it is connected to the outside plating. In warships, the plate and inner bar are usually continuous; in merchant vessels the plate and both bars are more frequently worked inter-costally between the frames. Also called longitudinal frame. See cuts under double bottom.
from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.
- adj. of or relating to lines of longitude
- adj. running lengthwise
- adj. over an extended time
Sorry, no etymologies found.
"In any long-term longitudinal survey of budgetary costs, I think it would be imprudent and misleading not to adjust for the effects of inflation," says Stephen I. Schwartz, editor of the journal Nonproliferation Review and director of a 1998 study by the left-leaning Brookings Institution on long-range nuclear-weapons spending in the U.S.
However, long-term longitudinal studies seem to reveal…
Long-term longitudinal studies would be needed to assess the validity of either perspective.
This kind of vibration is called a longitudinal vibration.
Following the Exxon Valdez spill in 1989, "We didn't do the long-term longitudinal follow up that now we all wish we had data on," says Donald Williamson, state health officer for Alabama.
Four significant long-term longitudinal studies are now under way: two at Harvard that Kagan initiated, two more at the University of Maryland under the direction of Nathan Fox, a former graduate student of Kagan's.
The seed of interest in longitudinal research had been planted; it germinated decades later in Vaillant’s psychiatric residency and then in the ultimate vein of data he discovered at Harvard.
Besides recruiting for other investigators 'research we will be launching a long term longitudinal cohort study to look at environmental issues including cosmetic ingredients and their effects on breast cancer.
One reason the study is reliable is because it was thorough and ran for multiple years, using what the study givers refer to as longitudinal methods typically associated with clinical research in medicine and public health.
One may say that synergy is cross-sectional whereas viability is longitudinal, that is, that synergy describes the health of a system at a given time, viability over time.