Definitions
from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition
 adj. Of or relating to mathematics.
 adj. Precise; exact.
 adj. Absolute; certain.
 adj. Possible according to mathematics but highly improbable: The team has only a mathematical chance to win the championship.
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/ShareAlike License
 adj. Of, or relating to mathematics
 adj. Possible but highly improbable
from the GNU version of the Collaborative International Dictionary of English
 adj. Of or pertaining to mathematics; according to mathematics; hence, theoretically precise; accurate
from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
 Of, pertaining to, or relating to mathematics; having to do with pure quantity; quantitative: as, mathematical knowledge; mathematical instruments; a mathematical theory.
 According to the principles of mathematics; theoretically precise; absolutely accurate; strict; rigid; demonstrable: as, mathematical exactness; mathematical certainty.
 Geometrical, as opposed to arithmetical and algebraical: an incorrect use, formerly current.
 Astrological; magical.
 Produced by mathematics, as pure figures and number.
 Mathematics.
from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.
 adj. beyond question
 adj. statistically possible though highly improbable
 adj. relating to or having ability to think in or work with numbers
 adj. characterized by the exactness or precision of mathematics
 adj. of or pertaining to or of the nature of mathematics
Etymologies
from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition
Examples

Art as a mathematical formulaFor his project, Keren tackled the problem by essentially breaking visually stunning masterpieces into sets of mathematical formulas.

The difference between the ˜anthropological™ and the mathematical account is that in the first we are not tempted to speak of ˜mathematical facts,™ but rather that in this account the facts are never mathematical ones, never make mathematical propositions true or false.

MIKE HUCKABEE, (R), PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE: Well, Seth, the media loves to throw around the term mathematical and possibility.

Regularity in habits was impossible to a student who had prolonged fits of what he called his mathematical trances.

The two principles above mentioned, which I called mathematical, in consideration of the fact of their authorizing the application of mathematic phenomena, relate to these phenomena only in regard to their possibility, and instruct us how phenomena, as far as regards their intuition or the real in their perception, can be generated according to the rules of a mathematical synthesis.

Hierarchy: in mathematical terms, it is a partially ordered set.

The use of Peano arithmetic is fairly pervasive in mathematical physics, hence, at first sight, this appears to be highly damaging to the prospects for a final Theory of Everything in physics.

I cringe every time you think in mathematical terms.

However, modern theorists like Demski, Behe and Meyer then enter the fray with the weapons of logic, reformulating the watchmaker metaphor (the complexity of a watch is proof of a watchmaker), and in mathematical and biochemical terms, focusing primarily on the inadequacy of Darwinism for the emergence of complex life.

Maybe the authors made some of these points (in mathematical garb)?
Promising Abstract, Disappointing Paper, Arnold Kling  EconLog  Library of Economics and Liberty
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