from The Century Dictionary.

  • noun In botany the integument of a seed in the aggregate; properly, same as testa.

from the GNU version of the Collaborative International Dictionary of English.

  • noun (Bot.) The covering of a seed; -- sometimes limited to the outer coat or testa.

from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License.

  • noun botany A seed coat or testa.


Sorry, no etymologies found.


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  • Next in position to this, and covering the seed, is the so-called spermoderm, which means the seed skin, referred to in the trade as the silver skin.

    All About Coffee 1909

  • With wingless seeds the main distinction is found in the spermoderm, which is entire in one species only, P. koraiensis.

    The Genus Pinus George Russell Shaw 1892

  • Parenchyma cells form the remainder of the spermoderm; and these are partially obliterated, so that the structure is not easily seen, appearing almost like a solid membrane.

    All About Coffee 1909

  • The spermoderm is thin enough not to need sectioning.

    All About Coffee 1909

  • I-- Cross-section of berry, natural size; _Pk_, outer pericarp; _Mk_, endocarp; _Ek_, spermoderm; _Sa_, hard endosperm; Sp, soft endosperm.

    All About Coffee 1909

  • Cones from 5 to 7 cm. long, subsessile, oval or subglobose; apophyses nut-brown or fulvous brown, dull or slightly lustrous, very thick, the under surface conspicuous, meeting the upper surface in an acute margin, and terminated by a salient, often acute umbo; seed wingless, the testa bare of spermoderm.

    The Genus Pinus George Russell Shaw 1892

  • In P. strobus, longifolia and their allies and in P. Balfouriana the spermoderm is prolonged into an effective wing-blade from a marginal adnate base like that of P. flexilis.

    The Genus Pinus George Russell Shaw 1892

  • Seeds wingless, the spermoderm forming a narrow border with a rudimentary prolongation.

    The Genus Pinus George Russell Shaw 1892

  • The seed of Pinus contains an embryo, with the cotyledons clearly defined, embedded in albumen, which is protected by a bony testa with an external membranous spermoderm, produced, in most species, into an effective wing.

    The Genus Pinus George Russell Shaw 1892

  • Cones indehiscent, from 9 to 14 cm. long, short-pedunculate, ovoid-conical or subcylindrical; apophyses dull pale nut-brown, rugose, shrinking much in drying and exposing the seeds, prolonged and tapering to a more or less reflexed tip, the umbo inconspicuous; seeds large, wingless, the spermoderm entire.

    The Genus Pinus George Russell Shaw 1892


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