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Genealogies of Pashtuns that were textualized most often in Persian during the contentious "identity-politics" of the seventeenth century when the speaking or writing of Pashto in addition to Persian (or Marathi, Hindustani, etc.) carried increasing social and political significance.
Pashto, despite its prominence and centrality in these matters, remained weakly textualized and subordinated to Persian as the language of state in Mughal India and Afghanistan in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, and in nineteenth-century colonial India the roles of English and Hindustani gained increasing significance. 25
Equiano's body of writing, in turn, can be equated with these accounts of butchering and burning, for in rendering his own life he has textualized his pain in a fashion aimed at unleashing a higher vengeance against not only the white sailors who interrupt his relation with George, but also against the state which sanctions the institution of plantation slavery.
6The typical scenario of a common fruit producer who was indebted to a banker, broker, or any other provider of credit including the state which garnered its revenue in the form of either produce or a form of "money," reveals at least two possible realms where those circumstances were textualized.
28Pashto was recognized as a language spoken by some Afghans in the pre - and early Mughal era, but the language was first textualized in the 1600s with the writings of Khushhal Khan Khattak. 20 During the seventeenth century, Pathan also appears in Persian language Mughal texts.
38The Hindkis 'commanding presence in the markets of Kabul, Peshawar, and Qandahar arose from their collective capacity to determine relations between the monetized and textualized portions of the economy.
To hazard an admittedly elliptic account, let me begin by suggesting that Romanticism has given rise to, refined, and institutionalized two distinct paradigms of reading: the first of these involves reading as immanent, textualized practice; it produces knowledge in the guise of a spontaneous, unpremeditated, and irrefutable revelation and, according to a tradition reinforced from Coleridge's Statesman's Manual (1816) to T.S. Eliot's late writings on Christianity and culture, such reading takes the crypto-Anglican, New Critical form of a hermetic exegesis of texts.
Cultural critic bell hooks elaborates, stating: “…Black women’s erotic consciousness is textualized around issues of body esteem: ‘Erotic pleasure requires of us …the capacity to be in touch with sensual reality; to accept and love our bodies; [to work] toward self-recovery issues around body esteem; [and] to be empowered by a healing eroticism’….” ctd. in Keyes 269.