from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition
- n. A large grouse (Tetrao urogallus), native to northern Europe and having dark plumage and a fanlike tail. Also called wood grouse.
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License
- n. A large, black grouse of the genus Tetrao in the bird family Phasianidae, especially the western capercaillie, Tetrao urogallus.
from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
- n. The Scotch name for the wood-grouse, Tetrao urogallus, the largest of the gallinaceous birds of Europe, the male sometimes weighing 12 to 13 pounds.
from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.
- n. large black Old World grouse
This affects especially ptarmigans, capercaillie, and ground birds.
The Alps are one of the last strongholds for the central European population of the threatened capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus), which consists of increasingly isolated populations.
The 204 bird species include capercaillie Tetrao urogallus, black grouse Lyrurus tetrix, willow grouse Lagopus lagopus, hazel grouse Tetrastes bonasia, black woodpecker Dryocopus martius, three-toed woodpecker Picoides tridactylus, nutcracker Nucifraga caryocatactes and red-flanked bluetail Tarsiger cyanurus.
Other Cantabric species that seasonally spread into this ecoregion are the Cantabrian chamois (Rupicapra parva) and the highly endangered capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus).
These include the capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) and the ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus).
Forest fauna include brown bear Ursus arctos, grey wolf Canis lupus, wild boar Sus scrofa, wild cat Felis silvestris, chamois Rupicapra rupicapra, various species of eagle, capercaillie Tetrao urogallus, black grouse Lyrurus tetrix and rock partridge Alectoris graeca.
Large carnivores such as brown bear and wolf have persisted here along with several rare birds including the capercaillie, griffon vulture, and black woodpecker.
Birds include species of swan goose Anser cygnoides, crested honey buzzard Pernis ptilorhyncus, black kite Milvus migrans, hawk owl Sunia ulula, rock ptarmigan Lagopus mutus, hazel grouse Tetrastes bonasia, capercaillie Tetrao urogallus and great bustard Otis tarda.
The area is faunistically rich, including European brown bear Ursus arctos, wolf Canis lupus, European otter Lutra lutra, wild cat Felis silvestris, eagle owl Bubo bubo, and capercaillie Tetra urogallus.
On the other hand the upper reaches of the river that are covered by larch, dark coniferous and stone birch forests, provide refuge for capercaillie Tetrao parvirostris and Siberian spruce grouse Falcipennis falcipennis*.