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  • 'He laid out three options for a Turkish national identity in the final years of the Ottoman Empire: Ottomanism, or a common Ottoman citizenship irrespective of religion of or?'>possible typo of or? origin; Pan-Islamism, based of course on religion; and Turkism, or a nationalism based on the Turkish "race".'
    (James Cuno, Who Owns Antiquity?, p.74.)

    November 2, 2008