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  • Congratulations, you're now an instagrammarian

    January 18, 2017

  • Short for cauliflower. "This cheesy cauli bread..."

    January 18, 2017

  • Alternate spelling of "as hell" — or a new word meaning that same thing.

    January 18, 2017

  • http://www.bewebsmart.com/social-media/instagram-social-media/what-is-a-finsta/

    You may be wondering, what the heck is a “finsta”? No, it’s not the latest new app. Finsta refers to a fake Instagram account. Just add “F” to “Instagram” for “Finstagram” and shorten that to “Finsta”.

    A finsta is a second Instagram account used for sharing with a smaller circle of followers. A finsta is usually a private Instagram account. While a teen’s primary account might also be private, a finsta is for close friends only. Only your BFF’s, your baes. (I can imagine my teen daughter cringing as she reads this – if she reads this!)

    January 18, 2017

  • Usage/historical note in comment on langdebeef.

    January 18, 2017

  • Usage/historical note in comment on langdebeef.

    January 18, 2017

  • Usage/historical note in comment on langdebeef.

    January 18, 2017

  • Usage/historical note in comment on langdebeef.

    January 18, 2017

  • An excellent list of sixteenth-century herbs in use in England can be found in a comment on langdebeef.

    January 18, 2017

  • "For those of us whose use of culinary herbs is restricted, say, to parsley, coriander, sage, thyme and basil, the cornucopia in use in the late sixteenth century is striking:

    Thyme, Savourie, Hyssop, Pennyroyal ... sage, Garden Clary, baulme, Mints, Costmary and Maudeline, tansie, Burnet, Monkes Rubarbe, Bloodwort, sorel (much used in sawses), langdebeef, arrach, blites, beetes, Alisanders, Smallage, Parsley, fennel, Dill, chervil, mallows, Succourie and Endive, spinach, lettice, purslane, tarragon, cresses, rocket, mustard, asparagus.*

    *Langdebeef was lamb's lettuce, bloodwort was dock, clary was a kind of sage, arrach was similar to spinach as a pot herb, and succourie was curly chicory."

    --Kate Colquhoun, Taste: The Story of Britain Through Its Cooking (NY: Bloomsbury, 2007), 115-116 and 116n

    January 18, 2017

  • "Newspapers gave up their fashion pages for columns headed 'What Women Can Do', and recipes for sole, lobsters, cream, eggs and butter were replaced with earnest advice on 'cheap brown soup' or crowdie made with the liquid in which mutton had been boiled with onions, oatmeal, salt and pepper."

    --Kate Colquhoun, Taste: The Story of Britain Through Its Cooking (NY: Bloomsbury, 2007), 319

    (this was at the start of World War I)

    January 18, 2017

  • "Coal was scarce so cinders were collected, and briquettes of clay, sawdust and tar were laboriously home-made as cooks struggled to learn economical ways with one-pot cooking and 'hay boxes'--wooden boxes insulated with hay, newspapers or blankets in which a stew, rice or suet pudding, brought to the boil on the stove, could then be left to 'cook'."

    --Kate Colquhoun, Taste: The Story of Britain Through Its Cooking (NY: Bloomsbury, 2007), 319

    January 18, 2017

  • "Canning offered a solution to the problem of urban supply and when cattle-plague hit in the 1860s, Australian tinned meat -- coarse-grained, overdone lumps with a wad of fat -- cost less than half the price of fresh meat and business boomed.* So unpopular that the navy called it 'Fanny Adams' after the eight-year-old whose murder had shocked the nation,** tinned meat was generally foul, but it was cheap and it came in handy for unexpected guests, titivated into soups, stews and rissoles. As the United States recovered from its Civil War, its canning factories went into overdrive: exports to Britain rose from seven tonnes in 1866 to about ten thousand tonnes five years later. ...

    * Sixteen thousand pounds of Australian tinned meat were imported in 1866, compared to twenty-two million pounds only five years later.

    **The scandals of earlier attempts at canning that had produced putrid meat had been broadly forgotten. It is likely that the tinned meat supplied to Sir John Franklin's fated 1850 expedition to find the North-West Passage had been boiled in salt water to save fuel, remaining partially raw at its core, rotting and poisoning many of the crew. Others believe that lead found in the tinned containers weakened the men."

    --Kate Colquhoun, Taste: The Story of Britain Through Its Cooking (NY: Bloomsbury, 2007), 299

    January 18, 2017

  • For usage/historical note, see comment on French fries.

    January 18, 2017

  • "... of all vegetables, the potato still reigned supreme. By the late 1850s they were being cut into strips and fried from raw -- in the 'French fashion', according to Mrs Beeton -- to accompany rump steak, and though some fried parboiled potatoes, everyone by the 1870s agreed that these delightful crispy strips were called 'chips'. Soon -- as steamships plundered the teeming northern seas, returning with such quantities in their refrigerated holds that fried fish for a penny became working-class fare -- chips would replace the baked potato."

    --Kate Colquhoun, Taste: The Story of Britain Through Its Cooking (NY: Bloomsbury, 2007), 297

    January 18, 2017

  • "Street children spent their few coins on a penny-slice of plum pudding, boiled trotters and pickled tripe, or boiled sweets luridly colored with lead, arsenic and mercury, or on rhubarb, currant and cherry pies -- even a slice of over-ripe pineapple -- all sold in the street from a bit of polished wood or a piece of oil cloth. From the 1840s, the Wenham Lake Ice Company had begun to import ice to sell in blocks to fishmongers, confectioners and wealthy households. Quick to catch at an opportunity, Italian immigrants like Carlo Gatti set up in business in London in the summer of 1850, selling hard, luridly coloured ices made from often dirty milk mixed with cornstarch and luring customers for their 'penny licks' with cries of 'ecco un poco!', ensuring their nickname: the Hokey Pokey men."

    --Kate Colquhoun, Taste: The Story of Britain Through Its Cooking (NY: Bloomsbury, 2007), 291-292

    January 18, 2017

  • After reading the horrific stuff on adulteration, this is a nice bit.

    "In response to such fraudulent and widespread practices, pre-packed and branded goods marketed with the promise of quality flourished, and in 1806 the details of a new method of preservation that -- unlike smoke, sugar, vinegar or salt -- did not change the taste of meat, fruit or vegetables were published by a Frenchman called Nicolas Appert. Appert bottled his materials, corked them carefully, boiled them in a water bath, sealed the bottles with pitch and stored them in a cool, dark place -- and it worked. New-laid eggs could now be boiled with bits of bread to stop them cracking. The technique worked for gravy, soups, fruits and reduced cream; even meat could be thus preserved, and new-gathered asparagus, beans and petits pois -- 'prepared with the utmost rapidity so that there should be as it were but one step from the garden-bed to the water bath' -- were declared delicious.

    "Driven by the needs of soldiers fighting in the Napoleonic Wars, Appert could see the potential benefits of his discovery to the military and to hospitals, but with chemistry still in its infancy and bacteriology unknown, he had no notion of how important his discovery would prove to be.* By the time his work was translated into english in 1811, technology was speeding ahead and his method was already being adapted to tinned metal containers by British businessmen. Brian Donkin's first canning factory opened in 1812 -- the year in which Charles Dickens was born -- producing goods in heavy metal containers which had to be opened with hammer and chisel. Hitherto, cooks had had to cut off rusty or sour pieces from their home-cured bacon, or wipe the slightly off joint with vinegar before cooking it.... With Donkin's method, even meat could be preserved indefinitely.

    *In America, the process of sterilisation that resulted from Pasteur's experiments was first known as 'appertising'."

    --Kate Colquhoun, Taste: The Story of Britain Through Its Cooking (NY: Bloomsbury, 2007), 269-271 and 270n.

    January 18, 2017

  • Usage/historical note can be found on ozmazome.

    January 18, 2017

  • See usage/historical note on ozmazome.

    January 18, 2017

  • "What had been called 'essence of meat' was all of a sudden confounded by the advancing science of chemistry as the notion of ozmazome briefly appeared, described by Carême as the 'most savoury part of the meat', by Soyer as its 'very essence' and by plenty of others, including Mrs Beeton, as the soluble part of the meat that gave its perfume and savour to stocks. Whether ozmazome was in fact the caramelised meat juices found in the roasting pan or a hazy notion of the most nutritious part of the meat (red meat had more of it than white, fish had none), the befuddling concept was soon exploited by Justus von Leibig, a German chemist, who developed his own 'Meat Extract', a concentrated powder achieving a cult-like status. It would later be renamed Oxo, the first in a long line of artificial gravy powders."

    --Kate Colquhoun, Taste: The Story of Britain Through Its Cooking (NY: Bloomsbury, 2007), 284

    January 18, 2017

  • "... the vegetables were soft-boiled.*

    *Unless you belonged to the Vegetarian Society (formed in 1847 from an offshoot of the Swedenborgians), whose members prided themselves on eating vegetables cut into pretty shapes, savoury omelettes, mushroom pies, moulded rice and the like. They were widely regarded as insane, even suicidal."

    --Kate Colquhoun, Taste: The Story of Britain Through Its Cooking (NY: Bloomsbury, 2007), 283

    See also Sublime Society of Beefsteaks.

    January 18, 2017

  • "The kipper was 'invented' in the 1840s by John Wodger - split, salted and smoked for long-term preservation."

    --Kate Colquhoun, Taste: The Story of Britain Through Its Cooking (NY: Bloomsbury, 2007), 283

    January 18, 2017

  • Eliza "Acton liked to keep it simple and slow; she transformed the written recipe not only with her exact quantities and detailed instructions on things like boning and trussing but, also for the very first time, with closing summaries of all the ingredients needed and the time that each one would take to complete.*

    *Listing ingredients at the foot of a recipe, when you think about it, makes sense, since it assumes that the recipe itself has been read thoroughly first. It was Isabella Beeton who copied Acton's innovation but moved the list to the beginning, giving us, finally, the form of the modern recipe."

    --Kate Colquhoun, Taste: The Story of Britain Through Its Cooking (NY: Bloomsbury, 2007), 281 and n.

    January 18, 2017

  • "Soyer also licensed his sauces and relishes to Messrs Crosse & Blackwell, and designed one of the very earliest domestic gas cookers, the unpronounceable Phidomageireion,* but it would be another fifty or so years before power stations supplied gas widely enough for most people to benefit from its instant heat.

    *'Thrifty kitchen' in Greek."

    --Kate Colquhoun, Taste: The Story of Britain Through Its Cooking (NY: Bloomsbury, 2007), 279

    January 18, 2017

  • "Crosse & Blackwell were soon selling nearly forty different pickles and sauces; Mr Bird invented instant custard powder for his delicate wife who could not take eggs but loved the sweet, creamy sauce that had taken Regency tables by storm. Colman's mustard removed from cooks the eye-watering process of grinding seeds, curry powders were sold widely, and a returning Governor of Bengal pressed not a cook, but a local chemist, Lea & Perrins, to invent Worcestershire, or 'Indian', sauce, so successful that its sales rose from 636 bottles in 1842 to 30,000 a decade later. New industrial methods created 'Dutched' or powdered chocolate, removing part of the butter fat to make it easier to dissolve, and Cadbury's factory at Bournville and Fry's followed soon after. Arrowroot thickened everything it touched and centrifugal machines began to produce the low-cost, high-quality granular sugar that would consign to history the paraphernalia for breaking down and grinding great sugar cones."

    --Kate Colquhoun, Taste: The Story of Britain Through Its Cooking (NY: Bloomsbury, 2007), 276-277

    January 18, 2017

  • "Ice was also finally beginning to be used as a preservative. In 1785, Alexander Dalrymple of the East India Company described the ancient Chinese practice of packing fresh fish in ice and the penny dropped. His friend George Dempster passed the information on to his Scottish fish merchant; the Scottish fishing industry was transformed, and fresh salmon was despatched countrywide, safely and without the need for salt or pickle."

    --Kate Colquhoun, Taste: The Story of Britain Through Its Cooking (NY: Bloomsbury, 2007), 270

    (this was about 1812--no specific date given)

    January 18, 2017

  • See usage/historical note in comment on adulteration.

    January 18, 2017

  • "Accomplished cooks skilfully used small quantities of cheaper cuts of meat in French-inspired stews, and the repertoire of leftover meat expanded from beef olives and hashes with a thick sauce to 'bubble and squeak', which fried chopped meat and cabbage together."

    --Kate Colquhoun, Taste: The Story of Britain Through Its Cooking (NY: Bloomsbury, 2007), 268

    See also comment on toad-in-the-hole.

    January 18, 2017

  • "Potato starch, known as mucilage, was treated as a thickener for soups and stews, though from the 1820s its use would be overtaken by arrowroot, imported from the East Indies."

    --Kate Colquhoun, Taste: The Story of Britain Through Its Cooking (NY: Bloomsbury, 2007), 268

    January 18, 2017

  • "The anonymous author of Domestic Economy (1827) cooked ripe tomato flesh to a bold mush with butter, garlic, thyme and chillies, but she was one of the bravest and most liberal of cooks, more ready to experiment with foreign flavours and textures than the majority of her broadly conservative contemporaries. Whereas most domestic cooks knew only a few 'foreign' recipes, keeping them quite separate from the rest of their cooking, she wrote inspiringly of the Continental love of calf's liver and encouraged her readers to dredge it in flour, fry it and serve it with an exemplary sauce of wine, ale, garlic, spices, and herbs. Among now-standard recipes for mulligatawny and curry, she daringly fricasséed frogs with garlic, simmered snails with truffles and introduced the sweet pillaus, yogurts and cold soups of Persia, cubbubs (kebabs), couscous and African honey-pastes. Against directions for more prosaic ox cheek, ox heart and salted udder jostled recipes for pigeons with apricots, mutton with dates and mince in vine leaves -- dishes so startlingly far ahead of their time that among Regency cookbooks they are entirely unique."

    --Kate Colquhoun, Taste: The Story of Britain Through Its Cooking (NY: Bloomsbury, 2007), 267

    January 18, 2017

  • Forget all your fussy statistics

    For wealth is a game of heuristics.

    Getting more than your neighbor

    With minimum labor

    Is practicing good chrematistics.

    January 18, 2017

  • "'Mullga-tawny', or pepper-water soup, was a favourite among those returning from India and the East, made of meat in a clear stock flavoured with pounded coriander seeds, cinnamon-like cassia, some black and cayenne pepper, turmeric, browned onions and garlic, with a little lemon juice and cream swirled in just before it was served. Everyone had a recipe for mulligatawny, and most served it with a ballast of boiled rice."

    --Kate Colquhoun, Taste: The Story of Britain Through Its Cooking (NY: Bloomsbury, 2007), 265

    January 18, 2017

  • "The word 'picnic' was taken from the French pique-nique. In 1802 the Picnic Club was formed, its members sharing the cost of meals sent from a local tavern, but the word soon developed its modern meaning of sharing food out of doors."

    --Kate Colquhoun, Taste: The Story of Britain Through Its Cooking (NY: Bloomsbury, 2007), 264

    January 18, 2017

  • "The cook would have used yards of worsted woven in the new mills, known as tammy cloth and sold, according to the Regency cook Dr Kitchiner, 'at the oil shops ... made on purpose for straining sauces'. Once the cloth had been filled with a thick liquid or purée, tammying was a job for two -- the cook and a maid each twisting their end in opposite directions over a large bowl until their wrists cried out for mercy."

    --Kate Colquhoun, Taste: The Story of Britain Through Its Cooking (NY: Bloomsbury, 2007), 258

    January 18, 2017

  • Usage/historical note in comment on ultramarine.

    January 18, 2017

  • "With the fin-de-siècle vogue for prettily coloured walls, the kitchen was painted blue.*

    * Less -- as one modern paint company would have it -- because flies were repelled by the colour than because both ultramarine and Prussian blue were relatively non-toxic compared to other colours laden with arsenic, lead and chromium."

    --Kate Colquhoun, Taste: The Story of Britain Through Its Cooking (NY: Bloomsbury, 2007), 257

    January 18, 2017

  • Usage/historical note (and differentiation between) can be found on bavarois.

    January 18, 2017

  • Carême "was also credited with the invention of the Bavarian cream, or bavarois, a rich custard and whipped cream (fouetté, for those in the know), set or moulded with isinglass and variously flavoured with nuts, star anise, chocolate or fruit purées. A bavaroise, on the other hand, was a later, caudle-like drink of hot, milky tea with egg yolks and kirsch."

    --Kate Colquhoun, Taste: The Story of Britain Through Its Cooking (NY: Bloomsbury, 2007), 249

    January 18, 2017

  • "Forcemeat balls became quenelles -- melting meat pastes mixed with cream, shaped into ovals and poached in clear broths -- or, alternatively, forcemeat sausages called 'boudins'."

    --Kate Colquhoun, Taste: The Story of Britain Through Its Cooking (NY: Bloomsbury, 2007), 246

    January 18, 2017

  • "For the poor, tea brought immediate if unsustaining comfort -- not the Hyson of the well-to-do but cheap leaves often adulterated with poisonous black lead."

    --Kate Colquhoun, Taste: The Story of Britain Through Its Cooking (NY: Bloomsbury, 2007), 240


    and...


    "Every cookbook and manual had its tips for detecting adulteration, practically turning the cook into a chemist. From 1820, when Frederick Accum's <i>Treatise on Adulterations of Food and Culinary Poisons</i> created such a furore that he had to leave the country, housekeepers found themselves ever more vigilant regarding vinegar made of vitriol, pickles greened with copperas, bread bulked and whitened with chalk, bones or plaster of Paris, and 'cream' made from milk thickened with potato starch." (p. 269)


    and...


    "Leaving their factories late and exhausted, the best food in the markets already purchased, the poorest bought wilted vegetables, old cheese, rancid bacon, tough meat taken from diseased cattle, decaying potatoes and miserably adulterated goods. ... adulteration of goods was reaching a fraudulent and dangerous peak,* and they (the poor) bore the brunt of it. But in an atomised society nobody much bothered about the undernourished, deceived and poisoned who, Engels believed, were lurching towards a revolution like those already ravaging the Continent. Indeed, ... the nation only drew back from the brink of potential revolution with repeal of the Corn Laws, which had maintained an artificially high price of corn. ... If it had not been for the lessons learned from its earlier civil war, Britain too might have tumbled into political turmoil during the worst of the 'Hungry Forties'.


    *The <i>Lancet</i> investigations in the early 1850s horrified the medical journal's readers when it found each of forty-nine bread samples to be adulterated. Coffee was commonly bulked with chicory or mangle-worzel and acorn, milk was watered, and tea had up to half its weight made up of iron filings. ... Against such 'death in the pot' fraudulence, the Food Adulteration Acts of 1872 and, particularly, 1875 at last outlawed the practices of short weights, bulking out and adding poisons to fake superior goods." (p. 289)

    January 18, 2017

  • "At Christ's Hospital School, the essayist Charles Lamb remembered Thursday's fatty, grey, boiled beef 'poisoned by detestable marigolds floating in the pail' in cheap imitation of saffron."

    --Kate Colquhoun, Taste: The Story of Britain Through Its Cooking (NY: Bloomsbury, 2007), 242

    January 18, 2017

  • Usage/historical note on gin.

    January 18, 2017

  • "... the spiritous scourge of the age came not from home-grown liquors but from Dutch genever, or gin. Made of corn spirits and flavoured with the juniper that gave it its name, gin was also brewed in grimy back alleys, but even the imports were cheap and potent enough to ruin the poor.... Gin continued to be sold under the name of 'Parliamentary Brandy'; only when the price of grain rose in the 1750s, taking the price of gin with it, were the poor forced to turn elsewhere for comfort and oblivion."

    --Kate Colquhoun, Taste: The Story of Britain Through Its Cooking (NY: Bloomsbury, 2007), 223

    January 18, 2017

  • "At balls and assemblies, chilled waters were flavoured with raspberry, apricot, currant, bergamot, orange flower, peach or pear; orgeat was made of pounded almonds; and potent lemonades were fortified with brandy or white wine and sugar."

    --Kate Colquhoun, Taste: The Story of Britain Through Its Cooking (NY: Bloomsbury, 2007), 224

    January 18, 2017

  • Usage/historical note in comment on punch.

    January 18, 2017

  • "The most popular new drink was punch. Introduced by East India merchants and served in ornate silver or decorated china bowls, punch had five main ingredients (hence its name -- panch means 'five' in Hindi): brandy, wine, lemons (even better, rare limes from the West Indies), sugar and spice. Sometimes rum, or rumbullion, made from the fermented residues of the sugar-refining process -- molasses -- was also added. Unsurprisingly, the mixture was incredibly potent."

    --Kate Colquhoun, Taste: The Story of Britain Through Its Cooking (NY: Bloomsbury, 2007), 223

    January 18, 2017

  • "De Saussure reckoned that 'more grain is consumed in England for making beer than for making bread', much of it clarified with isinglass or adulterated with dangerous copperas (ferrous sulphate) to make its head froth 'like a cauliflower'."

    --Kate Colquhoun, Taste: The Story of Britain Through Its Cooking (NY: Bloomsbury, 2007), 222

    See also usage/historical note in comment on adulteration.

    January 18, 2017

  • "Corks were now appearing for stopping bottles; the British were the first to use them for wine, allowing it to age properly."

    --Kate Colquhoun, Taste: The Story of Britain Through Its Cooking (NY: Bloomsbury, 2007), 220

    This is the late 18th century, BTW.

    January 18, 2017

  • "Imported from China and Malaya, salty soy sauce was popular, though few had any idea how it was made. The professional cook Martha Bradley believed it was made from a purplish mushroom with a wrinkled surface."

    --Kate Colquhoun, Taste: The Story of Britain Through Its Cooking (NY: Bloomsbury, 2007), 220

    January 18, 2017

  • "By the second half of the eighteenth century, thick gravies and cullises were giving way to catsups, or catchups: home-prepared sauces used as instant flavours for melted butter, or to enliven a stew or made dish. Hannah Glasse had given an early recipe for a sauce of anchovies, shallots, stale beer, mushrooms and spices all boiled together and reduced. Walnut catsup was now popular, and mushroom catsup was made from large mushrooms left to lie in salt overnight, then stewed and strained through a coarse cloth, the liquid simmered with ginger, pepper, mace and cloves until it had reduced to a thick syrup....

    They caught on so fast that by the 1780s home-made catsups in bottles were being slipped into cruet frames at the dining table, adorned with silver neck labels. They were useful, but catsups did also mark the beginning of a decline in culinary skills in Britain and the relinquishing of centuries of pride in the slow refinement of a perfect sauce."

    --Kate Colquhoun, Taste: The Story of Britain Through Its Cooking (NY: Bloomsbury, 2007), 219

    January 18, 2017

  • "Topham also described a dinner of Scottish food that left him 'almost famished with hunger and tantalised to death of Scottish haggis ... cocky leaky ... sheep's head ... and Solan Goose', or gannet. The haggis made his stomach lurch: ' ... my Politeness got the better of my delicacy, and I was prevailed on to taste it; but I could go no farther.'

    *In a 500-year-old tradition, men still scale the 300-foot cliffs of Sula Sgeir north-west of Lewis to collect thousands of baby gannets -- guga -- from precarious ledges, salting and barrelling them on the spot. Before cooking, they are scrubbed to remove the grease and salt and boiled in clean water, constantly skimming off the grease. They are then roasted. While coastal communities survived on these gannets for generations, they have a limited gastronomic appeal: apart from the people of Ness, most now find them greasily revolting with a taste something like fishy beef. The smell of boiling guga is said to be repugnant."

    --Kate Colquhoun, Taste: The Story of Britain Through Its Cooking (NY: Bloomsbury, 2007), 218

    January 18, 2017

  • "... Johnson's contemporary Edward Topham also enjoyed delectable Scottish dishes of salted cod (cabbiclow) boiled with parsley and horseradish and of friar's chicken -- pieces of fowl boiled with parsley, cinnamon and eggs in a strong beef soup."

    --Kate Colquhoun, Taste: The Story of Britain Through Its Cooking (NY: Bloomsbury, 2007), 218

    January 18, 2017

  • "But although tripe, kidneys and other innards were still widely used, they were descending on the social scale, now known as offal because they literally fell off during butchering."

    --Kate Colquhoun, Taste: The Story of Britain Through Its Cooking (NY: Bloomsbury, 2007), 219

    See also comment on garbage.

    January 18, 2017

  • from the example tweets, it appears to be a funny variant of Facebook.

    January 18, 2017

  • Did Snoop Dogg invent shiz and shiznit? or just shizzle?

    January 18, 2017

  • Sola Gratia

    January 17, 2017

  • "With Henry Fielding's 'Roast Beef of Old England' ringing in their ears, the Sublime Society of Beefsteaks* tucked into enormous steaks.... Foreign visitors still swooned at the British roast cooked rare in the middle while France continued to cook its roasts to the core.

    * Formed in a room at the top of the Covent Garden Theatre in 1735 to protest against French cooking. The members, called 'steaks', assembled weekly to devour grilled steaks weighing between 3 and 5 pounds with baked potatoes and beetroot. Members included George IV when he was Prince of Wales, his portly brothers the dukes of Clarence and of Sussex, William Hogarth, Colley Cibber and David Garrick."

    --Kate Colquhoun, Taste: The Story of Britain Through Its Cooking (NY: Bloomsbury, 2007), 216-217

    See also Vegetarian Society.

    January 18, 2017

  • "Winter-feeding and selective breeding had continued to improve livestock so that by the close of the century animals had doubled in size since the Middle Ages. And there was plenty of it. Butchers' meat was around thruppence a pound at mid-century -- half the price of butter -- and the 80,000 cattle that were driven to market in London in 1750 was set to increase to nearer a hundred thousand by 1800. Unsurprisingly there were tourists who wrote that they did not 'believe that any Englishman who is his own master has ever eaten a dinner without meat'."

    --Kate Colquhoun, Taste: The Story of Britain Through Its Cooking (NY: Bloomsbury, 2007), 216

    January 17, 2017

  • "Indian curries were also good for leftovers, generally using turmeric, ginger, stock, cream and, occasionally, a little lemon juice. As the taste for them spread inexorably, ready-mixed curry powders -- from the 1780s -- trounced the gentler flavours of mace and nutmeg so highly prized in the early decades of the century."

    --Kate Colquhoun, Taste: The Story of Britain Through Its Cooking (NY: Bloomsbury, 2007), 216

    January 17, 2017

  • "Few households still had the staff to finish off the remains of the family food; the shopkeeper Thomas Turner regularly recorded that his 'family at home dined on the remains of yesterday's dinner', even while he entertained his customers on neats' tongues and turnips. The last of the roast or boiled meat could be made into beef olives with a plain stuffing of bread, onion and suet; hashes were simple ways of reheating sliced leftovers; and toad-in-the-hole delightfully developed as a way of using up slices of cold meat in a blanket of puffed-up Yorkshire pudding batter. Indian curries were also good for leftovers, generally using turmeric, ginger, stock, cream and, occasionally, a little lemon juice."

    --Kate Colquhoun, Taste: The Story of Britain Through Its Cooking (NY: Bloomsbury, 2007), 216

    See also comment/historical note on bubble and squeak.

    January 18, 2017

  • While athletes may swear by athletics

    As central to bioenergetics.

    We aesthetes still know

    An energy flow

    Is felt when we practice aesthetics.

    January 17, 2017

  • "transient lunar phenomenon"

    flashes of light observed on the moon's surface.

    January 17, 2017

  • reminds me of the lyric "Superman never made any money

    Savin' the world from Solomon Grundy"

    January 17, 2017

  • In this example, someone in a fandom (BBC Sherlock) who believes something strongly, even though they know they'll be treated like a wigged-out conspiracy theorist. http://221behavior.tumblr.com/post/155972809187/i-believe-in-bbc-sherlock

    January 17, 2017

  • "... 'hatelets', or decorative skewers..." (p. 238) and "precursors of the club-sandwich cocktail stick" (p. 246) in Kate Colquhoun, Taste: The Story of Britain Through Its Cooking (NY: Bloomsbury, 2007).

    January 17, 2017

  • Archaic spelling of "calipash."

    January 17, 2017

  • Usage/historical note in comment on curry.

    January 17, 2017

  • "Glasse had been the first in England to publish a recipe for 'Currey the India way' in the earliest edition of her book (1747). Adding browned and pulverised coriander seeds to a simple stew of pieces of fowl or rabbit with onions, salt and butter, she observed that the sauce must be reduced until it was 'pretty thick'. She added other dishes savouring of the East: the pillau -- or pellow -- based on slow-cooked rice that 'must be very thick and dry and not boiled to a Mummy', and 'Mutton the Turkish way', a stew of mutton with rice, turnips and ginger. Curry was the taste of the arrogant nabobs returning from positions with the East India Company, and as it grew more popular, Glasse updated her work, including in the fifth edition (1755) a recipe for 'Indian Pickle' that used a gallon of vinegar, a pound of garlic, long pepper, mustard seed, ginger and turmeric."

    --Kate Colquhoun, Taste: The Story of Britain Through Its Cooking (NY: Bloomsbury, 2007), 209

    January 17, 2017

  • "'Portable Soup', also known as glue, was usually made from veal -- sometimes beef -- stock, reduced into a jelly that could be dried and stored. It was practical and, like the modern stock cube, would keep for years, easily reconstituted into a broth with the addition of hot water: ideal for both ships' captains and for cooks. Like the vilified French cullis, glue required quantities of meat -- Ann Blencowe used a whole leg of veal to make a piece no bigger than her hand, and Glasse's recipe called for 50 pounds of beef to 9 gallons of water. It also took hours to prepare, but at a time where fresh stock could sour in the space of a hot summer's afternoon, it could be a saviour."

    --Kate Colquhoun, Taste: The Story of Britain Through Its Cooking (NY: Bloomsbury, 2007), 209

    January 17, 2017

  • "To pep up their colour, some added copper salts to the water or used a copper pan with vinegar for boiling, a habit that might have worked, but that also risked poisoning the diners with highly toxic verdigris. Georgian writers continuously warned their readers to carefully wash and dry their copper pans and ensure that they were kept well tinned to avoid the green killer, and there were similar warnings about storing pickles in pottery with lead glazes."

    --Kate Colquhoun, Taste: The Story of Britain Through Its Cooking (NY: Bloomsbury, 2007), 207

    January 17, 2017

  • Usage/historical note on salmagundi.

    January 17, 2017

  • "... a new supper dish grew out of the 'grand sallets' of the seventeenth century, the salmagundi, a large mounded salad layering minced cold meats with anchovies and pickles.*

    *Surviving still in Canada as Solomon Gundy."

    --Kate Colquhoun, Taste: The Story of Britain Through Its Cooking (NY: Bloomsbury, 2007), 208

    January 17, 2017

  • "In the back of the British Library's copy of La Chapelle's Modern Cook is a handwritten recipe for something far simpler than its author's offerings: ramakins or baked cheese, made from a paste of half a pound of mild cheese, an ounce of butter and an egg yolk, spread thickly on toast and browned with a red-hot salamander. Dishes like this were commonly served for supper, and there was nothing particularly French about them--indeed they would soon develop into the much-loved rabbits (sometimes known as rarebits today) as the great English cheese industries around Cheddar, Stilton and Cheshire expanded."

    --Kate Colquhoun, Taste: The Story of Britain Through Its Cooking (NY: Bloomsbury, 2007), 192

    Also...

    "As savoury toasts began to join the salad at the end of meals, Glasse was again among the first to give recipes for toasted-cheese rabbits, her 'Scotch rabbit' prepared the way we would today, the toast for 'Welsh' rabbit rubbed with mustard, and 'English' rabbits made by dipping the bread into red wine before toasting and lathering it with melted cheese."

    (p. 208-209)

    January 17, 2017

  • Of shady origins and cast in the shadows of uncertainty

    January 17, 2017

  • "Overhead, lounging across doorways and oblivious to my progress, floated half-naked stucco women with dusty bosoms; higher still, edging towards the invisible land that extends behind us, the heads of National Revivalists grew from the facades like giant polypores."

    Empty Streets by Michal Ajvaz, translated by Andrew Oakland, p 87 of the Dalkey Archive paperback edition

    January 17, 2017

  • In the sense of "a metal utensil with a flat head...," see usage/historical note on scalloped potatoes and on rarebit.

    January 17, 2017

  • "By mid-century mashed potato would find its ultimate refinement, spooned into scallop shells kept for the purpose and grilled with a salamander to become 'scalloped potatoes' --a dish that would enjoy a renaissance two centuries later during the 1970s freezer and prepared-foods boom."

    --Kate Colquhoun, Taste: The Story of Britain Through Its Cooking (NY: Bloomsbury, 2007), 207

    January 16, 2017

  • "Few published cooks omitted recipes for celery fried with cream, eggs or herbs, for mushrooms stewed with cream, or for boiling and buttering vegetables almost unknown today, like alexanders, cardoons and scorzonera.*

    * Alexanders were an old-fashioned, bitterish, celery-like root that was about to be replaced by celery; cardoons are artichoke-like thistles; scorzonera is black salsify. The word vegetable had previously referred to any member of the plant kingdom but was first used in print by the agriculturalist Arthur Young in 1767 to refer to the cultivation of specifically edible plants."

    --Kate Colquhoun, Taste: The Story of Britain Through Its Cooking (NY: Bloomsbury, 2007), 206

    January 16, 2017

  • Usage/historical note in comment on salt nitre.

    January 16, 2017

  • "The next step on the culinary path was salt -- particularly cheaper salt nitre or saltpetre, introduced almost certainly from India in the Tudor period and already widely used in the salting of hams. Put the two together around a separate container of water or cream and the effect was swift even if the science was perplexing: as the salt melted the ice in the outer bucket, it sucked the heat from anything it touched, reducing its temperature and causing the contents of the inner bowl to freeze."

    --Kate Colquhoun, Taste: The Story of Britain Through Its Cooking (NY: Bloomsbury, 2007), 179

    re: cream ice better (later) known as ice cream

    January 16, 2017

  • Hope this helps me

    January 16, 2017

  • Alas, Flickr hates me.

    January 16, 2017

  • "Since the start of the seventeenth century, Neapolitans, like their Roman ancestors, had been using the eternal snows of Mt Etna to cool their drinks. Now they were influenced by sorbetti, the sherbets of Turkey: fruit syrups that were chilled but (and this is important) never frozen. It became quite the thing in Naples to mound pyramids of snow on to the dessert table and to serve wines chilled in an ice bucket."

    --Kate Colquhoun, Taste: The Story of Britain Through Its Cooking (NY: Bloomsbury, 2007), 178

    January 16, 2017

  • See usage/historical notes in comment on cream ice.

    January 16, 2017

  • "Ice cream --or cream ice as it was called for the first hundred or so years of its existence -- not only looked divine but presented an extraordinary, utterly unique taste experience: the shock of the frozen mass hitting the teeth and the explosion of flavour and perfume as it melted in the mouth. It made eyes fly open with surprise. So exquisitely rare at the time that it might have been part of the Crown Jewels, a single sweetened cream ice was served to Charles II at the Garter Feast of 1671 at St George's Hall -- its first written record in Britain."

    --Kate Colquhoun, Taste: The Story of Britain Through Its Cooking (NY: Bloomsbury, 2007), 177

    "In the 1730s the Duke of Chesterfield's renowned cook Vincent La Chapelle developed the technique of making ices by stirring the mixture from time to time as it set, breaking up the crystals and creating a much creamier effect. ... By the 1760s cream ices had become ice creams and syllabubs had been pushed into second place."

    --Kate Colquhoun, Taste: The Story of Britain Through Its Cooking (NY: Bloomsbury, 2007), 180-181

    January 16, 2017

  • "Intensely reduced, this broth also formed the thick cullises, used to drench pyramids of labour-intensive and highly flavoured meat dishes. It was partly this cullis, requiring hours of work and endless ingredients to make, that gave the French style its reputation as overblown and expensive. Cullises were not the juicy by-products of cooking meat but intricate and expensive undertakings all of their own."

    --Kate Colquhoun, Taste: The Story of Britain Through Its Cooking (NY: Bloomsbury, 2007), 165

    January 16, 2017

  • "With presentation a la francaise, tureens of soup and fish were followed by removes, or relevees (because they literally necessitated the removal of the soup)."

    --Kate Colquhoun, Taste: The Story of Britain Through Its Cooking (NY: Bloomsbury, 2007), 158

    January 16, 2017

  • "As the secret of making ices spread, sorbetieres--cylindrical pots with lids, designed to be plunged into wooden freezing-pails filled with crushed ice and salt--developed. Tiny pewter or tin moulds about 1 to 3 inches high and in the shapes of fruits, flowers or animals were also produced, but these early ices were neither churned nor beaten during freezing, resulting in a rather solid mass that must have been hard to eject from the moulds...."

    --Kate Colquhoun, Taste: The Story of Britain Through Its Cooking (NY: Bloomsbury, 2007), 180

    January 16, 2017

  • "Eales was among the first cooks to develop jams, or giams -- cherry, apricot or raspberry mixtures which were not designed to set into firm pastes for slicing but which remained runny, stored in jars with paper lids. These were especially handy for flavouring ices."

    --Kate Colquhoun, Taste: The Story of Britain Through Its Cooking (NY: Bloomsbury, 2007), 180

    January 16, 2017

  • "Gradually, a radically new style of presentation at table emerged. Known as a la russe in imitation of the tsarist court, it -- confusingly -- began in France, possibly in honour of Alexander I's liberation of Paris from Napoleon in 1814. It was characterised by two novel features: food was now served straight onto plates from a sideboard and handed to guests, and the courses therefore progressed much as they might today, with soup, fish, meat, vegetables and dessert now entirely separate. ... The upshot of this new style was that guests got their food faster and hotter and with less need to help one another. Chairs could be set further apart, and arms need never touch at all."

    --Kate Colquhoun, Taste: The Story of Britain Through Its Cooking (NY: Bloomsbury, 2007), 251-252

    January 16, 2017

  • "French court fashions were profoundly influential, and the way that food was presented at table altered as a style known as a la francaise took hold, a vogue that required an enormous variety of dishes to be arranged like a Bach fugue in kaleidoscopic, symmetrical, repetitive order, even raised up on mini platforms to create a landscape of dishes."

    --Kate Colquhoun, Taste: The Story of Britain Through Its Cooking (NY: Bloomsbury, 2007), 157-158

    See also relevee.

    January 16, 2017

  • "Grapefruits -- originally called shaddocks -- and limes were also imported from the West Indies, but neither initially found favour."

    --Kate Colquhoun, Taste: The Story of Britain Through Its Cooking (NY: Bloomsbury, 2007), 156

    January 16, 2017

  • "... But chocolate was far more complicated to make than coffee. In South America, the beans were roasted, crushed, mixed into a paste with water and dried into 'nibs' for export. Once in England, the nibs were scraped into sweetened milk and boiled rapidly, frothed with a 'Spanish instrument' called a molenillo or molinet -- usually about a foot long, wooden and horizontally ridged, something like a modern honey spoon -- and rolled vigorously between the hands until the cocoa particles, cocoa oil and milk had emulsified."

    --Kate Colquhoun, Taste: The Story of Britain Through Its Cooking (NY: Bloomsbury, 2007), 147

    January 16, 2017

  • Oh, wonder not that he yammers on;

    He was to the bullshit manner born.

    His loftiest notion

    Is crude self-promotion

    It lives in the genes of the fanfaron.

    January 16, 2017

  • For an interesting discussion of "to the manner born" and its illegitimate spawn "to the manor born" see

    http://www.word-detective.com/2011/10/to-the-manner-manor-born/

    January 16, 2017

  • http://www.vulture.com/2017/01/reese-witherspoon-on-films-smurfette-syndrome.html

    Appearing at the TCAs, Witherspoon got candid about Hollywood's so-called "Smurfette Syndrome," wherein she was frequently the sole woman in the room. "For 25 years, I've been the only woman on set, so I had no other women to talk to ... They call it 'Smurfette Syndrome.' Because she's got a hundred Smurfs around her and she's the only girl," she explained.

    January 16, 2017

  • You could take a picture of your 'hello bilby!' tattoo and upload it to Flickr.

    /helpful

    January 15, 2017

  • What better a haven could please us

    When orage and outrage besiege us

    Than a place that's pacific,

    Albeit quite mythic,

    The safe and unchanging East Jesus.

    January 15, 2017

  • I reckon the teacher respects me

    'Cuz he's all smart and intellecky

    And don't call me no fool

    For lovin' my mule

    But sez that we share a entelechy.

    January 15, 2017

  • This is a fascinating site, the first few words that I looked at are interesting and I'll have fun incorporating them into my writing ideas.

    January 15, 2017