from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition
- transitive v. To make short or shorter.
- transitive v. Nautical To take in (a sail) so that less canvas is exposed to the wind, thereby reducing speed.
- transitive v. To reduce in force, efficacy, or intensity.
- transitive v. To add shortening to (dough) so as to make flaky.
- intransitive v. To become short or shorter.
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License
- v. To make shorter; to abbreviate.
- v. To become shorter.
from the GNU version of the Collaborative International Dictionary of English
- transitive v. To make short or shorter in measure, extent, or time
- transitive v. To reduce or diminish in amount, quantity, or extent; to lessen; to abridge; to curtail; to contract
- transitive v. To make deficient (as to); to deprive; -- with of.
- transitive v. To make short or friable, as pastry, with butter, lard, pot liquor, or the like.
- intransitive v. To become short or shorter
from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
- To become short or shorter; contract; diminish in length: as, ropes shorten when wet.
- To make anything short: used with in in the nautical phrase to shorten in on the cable, to heave in short or shorter.
- To come short; fail.
- To make short or shorter; abridge; curtail: as, to shorten hours of work; to shorten the skirt of a dress.
- To make appear short: as, pleasant companionship shortens a journey; a concave mirror shortens the face.
- Figuratively, to make inefficient or incapable. Compare short-armed.
- To take in; contract; lessen in extent or amount: as, to shorten sail; to shorten an allowance.
- To check; confine; restrain.
- To deprive.
- To cause to come short or fail.
- To make short or friable, as pastry with butter or lard.
- To pronounce or measure as short: as, to shorten a vowel or syllable.
from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.
- v. make short or shorter
- v. make shorter than originally intended; reduce or retrench in length or duration
- v. reduce in scope while retaining essential elements
- v. become short or shorter
- v. edit by omitting or modifying parts considered indelicate
short + -en (Wiktionary)