Definitions
from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition
 n. A number or symbol multiplied with a variable or an unknown quantity in an algebraic term, as 4 in the term 4x, or x in the term x(a + b).
 n. A numerical measure of a physical or chemical property that is constant for a system under specified conditions such as the coefficient of friction.
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/ShareAlike License
 adj. cooperating
 n. A constant by which an algebraic term is multiplied.
 n. A number, value or item that serves as a measure of some property or characteristic.
from the GNU version of the Collaborative International Dictionary of English
 adj. Coöperating; acting together to produce an effect.
 n. That which unites in action with something else to produce the same effect.
 n. A number or letter put before a letter or quantity, known or unknown, to show how many times the latter is to be taken.
 n. A number, commonly used in computation as a factor, expressing the amount of some change or effect under certain fixed conditions as to temperature, length, volume, etc..
from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
 Coöperating; acting in union to the same end.
 n. That which unites in action with something else to produce a given effect; that which unites its action with the action of another.
 n. In algebra, a number or other constant placed before and multiplying an unknown quantity or variable or an expression containing such quantities; also, a number multiplying a constant or known quantity expressed algebraically—that is, by the letters a, b, etc.
 n. In physical, a numerical quantity, constant for a given substance, and used to measure some one of its properties: as, the coefficient of expansion of any substance is the amount which the unit of length (surface or volume) expands in passing from 0° to 1° C.
 n. Same as coefficient of variation.
 n. Superior lethal coefficient, that medium concentration of a disinfectant which will kill bacteria spores in water at a temperature of 20–25° C. in the shortest time.
 n. The coefficient of change in electrical resistance of a substance with variation of temperature. The temperature coefficient is given by the equation: in which r is the resistance of the substance at the temperature to, and ro, its resistance at 0°.
from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.
 n. a constant number that serves as a measure of some property or characteristic
Etymologies
Sorry, no etymologies found.
Examples

He had them flip tires and push sleds, varying the resistance based on what he called the coefficient of friction.

The notion of nobility coefficient is suspended whenever Russia is involved.

This coefficient is linearly dependent on the drag coefficient (the parameter I was varying), but it is dependent on the shot pellet's radius squared.

The variation in the nonlinear damping coefficient is what cases the the shot string to elongate.

The correlation coefficient is high, probably close to .8 out of 1.0, meaning that the economy is about 80% constrained by oil.

If the coefficient is 0.8, then a 1% increase in the price of beer will lead to a 0.8% decrease in consumption of beer.

If the coefficient is 1.2, then a 1% increase in the price of beer will lead to a 1.2% decrease in consumption of beer.

For example, suppose the coefficient from the regression above was 1.08, and you determined that it takes an 8% increase in the beer tax to result in a 1% increase in the total price of beer.

That is, if the Gini coefficient is too low/tax code is too progressive, you have a socialist economy, with insufficient incentives for work/enterprise.
Matthew Yglesias » Brink Lindsey Accuses Progressives of Peddling “Nostalgianomics”

The drag coefficient is what makes a bullet act like a "bomb" in a deer.
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