Definitions

from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition

  • adj. Being more than or in excess of what is needed or required: surplus grain. See Synonyms at superfluous.
  • n. An amount or a quantity in excess of what is needed.
  • n. Accounting Total assets minus the sum of all liabilities.
  • n. Accounting Excess of a corporation's net assets over the face value of its capital stock.
  • n. Accounting Excess of receipts over expenditures.

from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License

  • n. That which remains when use or need is satisfied, or when a limit is reached; excess; overplus.
  • n. Specifically, an amount in the public treasury at any time greater than is required for the ordinary purposes of the government.
  • n. The remainder of a fund appropriated for a particular purpose.
  • n. assets left after liabilities and debts, including capital stock have been deducted.
  • adj. Being or constituting a surplus; more than sufficient; as, surplus revenues; surplus population; surplus words.

from the GNU version of the Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • n. That which remains when use or need is satisfied, or when a limit is reached; excess; overplus.
  • n. Specifically, an amount in the public treasury at any time greater than is required for the ordinary purposes of the government.
  • adj. Being or constituting a surplus; more than sufficient

from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia

  • n. That which remains above what is used or needed; excess beyond what is prescribed or wanted; more than enough; overplus.
  • n. In law, the residuum of an estate after the debts and legacies are paid.
  • Being above what is required; in excess: as, surplus labor; surplus population.

from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.

  • adj. more than is needed, desired, or required
  • n. a quantity much larger than is needed

Etymologies

Middle English, an excess, surplus, from Old French, an excess, from Medieval Latin superplūs : Latin super-, super- + Latin plūs, more; see pelə-1 in Indo-European roots.
(American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition)
French surplus (Wiktionary)

Examples

  • Marx used the term surplus value to refer to the commodities produced above and beyond subsistence.

    Value theory

  • Bush said the surplus is the people's money not the government but he turned over a deficit to Obama and a complete mess for him to clean up.

    Cantor gets in quickest response on jobs

  • There is one other general concept used throughout the work which should be defined here – the concept of what I call surplus energy (often shortened to surplus).

    Energy and Society~ Chapter 1~ Energy & Society

  • In the case of labor, price supports are known as a minimum wage, import restrictions are handled by the Immigration Department and the surplus is additional unemployment.

    Coyote Blog » Blog Archive » Case Studies on the Minimum Wage

  • Now, this difference between what you get and what he gets is what we call surplus-value.

    Socialism: Positive and Negative

  • Having studied the documents and the past recent history of the Games bidding process, we have decided that the word 'surplus' clearly represents the financial results from the staging of the Olympic Games and the Paralympic Games combined.

    BBC News - Home

  • Having studied the documents and the past recent history of the Games bidding process we have decided that the word 'surplus' clearly represents the financial results from the staging of the Olympic Games and the Paralympic Games combined.

    The Independent - Frontpage RSS Feed

  • "Having studied the documents and the past recent history of the games bidding process, we have decided that the word 'surplus' clearly represents the financial results from the staging of the Olympic Games and the Paralympic Games combined," the IOC said.

    The Globe and Mail - Home RSS feed

  • But that has we see drops in assets across the entire industry taking, what I call the surplus outs.

    SeekingAlpha.com: Home Page

  • The years when the budget was in "surplus" were hardly a time of low interest rates, or declining trade deficits for that matter.

    Economic Attribution Error, Arnold Kling | EconLog | Library of Economics and Liberty

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