Definitions
from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition
 n. A person skilled or learned in mathematics.
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/ShareAlike License
 n. An expert on mathematics.
from the GNU version of the Collaborative International Dictionary of English
 n. One versed in mathematics.
from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
 n. One who is versed in mathematics.
 n. An astrologer.
from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.
 n. a person skilled in mathematics
Etymologies
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/ShareAlike License
Examples

Ever hear the quip that a mathematician is a machine for turning coffee into proofs?

Y'know what they call a mathematician who goes south for the winter?

Finally, it’s safe to say the Dembski is not an active researcher in the field of mathematics, and it’s reasonable to limit the scope of the term mathematician to those who are.

The tall, blonde mathematician is one of the first women to serve in an operational support role in mission control.

The best Indian mathematician is probably better than the average American one.
Indian Labor Productivity, Arnold Kling  EconLog  Library of Economics and Liberty

Both of Duchin's parents loved numbers, and she knew she wanted to be a mathematician from the tender age of 7.

Jakob Bernouli, a mathematician from a great family of brilliant people, called the logarithmic spiral spira mirabilis, or "the Miraculous Spiral," so called because the size increases but its shape is unaltered with each successive curve.

Synopsis: In an alternate postWWII, a mathematician is imprisoned for his homosexuality.

A mathematician is not a man who can readily manipulate figures; often he cannot.

Davis, who  when she met him, Jefferson Davis 'wife, said that he was as cold and logical as the worst kind of mathematician, which is what he probably should have been.
alexz commented on the word mathematician
an odd number of...
(if they disagree with the 'odd' number, reply with 'prove it'
January 18, 2014
alexz commented on the word mathematician
a group of mathematicians is called a ... http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/rootsofunity/2014/01/14/collectivenounformathematicians/ of ofonumber numbernumbenumbnumnun irrationalirratiirratirrairririan anasuggest suggestsuggessuggesuggsugsusI I
January 18, 2014