from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition
- transitive v. To cause to become confused or perplexed. See Synonyms at puzzle.
- transitive v. To fail to distinguish; mix up: confound fiction and fact.
- transitive v. To make (something bad) worse: Do not confound the problem by losing your temper.
- transitive v. To cause to be ashamed; abash: an invention that confounded the skeptics.
- transitive v. To damn.
- transitive v. To frustrate: trivial demands that confounded the peace talks.
- transitive v. Archaic To bring to ruination.
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License
- v. To confuse; to mix up; to puzzle.
- v. To fail to see the difference; to mix up; to confuse right and wrong.
- v. To make something worse.
- v. To cause to be ashamed; to abash.
- v. To defeat, to frustrate, to thwart.
- v. To damn (a mild oath).
- v. To bring to ruination.
- v. To stun, amaze
- n. a confounding variable
from the GNU version of the Collaborative International Dictionary of English
- transitive v. To mingle and blend, so that different elements can not be distinguished; to confuse.
- transitive v. To mistake for another; to identify falsely.
- transitive v. To throw into confusion or disorder; to perplex; to strike with amazement; to dismay.
- transitive v. To destroy; to ruin; to waste.
from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
- To mingle confusedly together; mix indiscriminately, so that individuals, parts, or elements cannot be distinguished; throw into disorder; confuse.
- To treat or regard erroneously as identical: mix or associate by mistake.
- To throw into confusion; perplex with sudden disturbance, terror, or surprise; stupefy with amazement.
- To destroy; bring to naught; overthrow; ruin; spoil.
- Hence such interjectional phrases as confound it! confound the fellow! which are relics of the fuller imprecations, God confound it! God confound the fellow ! etc.
- To waste or spend uselessly, as time.
- Synonyms See list under confuse. Confuse, etc. See abash.
from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.
- v. be confusing or perplexing to; cause to be unable to think clearly
- v. mistake one thing for another
Middle English confounden, from Anglo-Norman confundre, from Latin cōnfundere, to mix together, confuse : com-, com- + fundere, to pour; see gheu- in Indo-European roots.(American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition)
From Anglo-Norman cunfundre, from Old French confondre. (Wiktionary)